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        MATCHING BLOOD GROUPS
MATCHING BLOOD GROUPS
BLOOD GROUPS THAT DO NOT MATCH FOR MARRIAGE

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Boy:A = Girl:O&B
Boy:B = Girl:O&A
Boy:AB = Girl:O,A& B
Boy:Rh+ve = Girl:Rh-ve

Matching blood groups for marriage

Boy:A = Girl:A&AB
Boy:B = Girl:B& AB
Boy:O = Girl:O,A,B & AB
Boy:AB = Girl:AB
Boy:Rh+ve = Girl:Rh+ve
Boy:Rh-ve = Girl:Rh+ve & Rh-ve

Why it is suggested to match blood group before marriage.
Matching blood group before marriage is important. This is to prevent Rh incompatibility. Rh incompatibility can lead to erythroblastosis fetalis (Hemolytic disease of the newborn-HDN). Fetal RBC get destroyed & newborn may get severe anaemia, jaundice. This jaundice is more severe than Physiological jaundice ( which is the most common and will usually resolve on its own).
In very severe form, fetus may die due to heart failure. This is mediated by antigen-antibodies reaction. Transfer of maternal antibodies across the placenta occurs.
This happens when Rh +ve man marries Rh-ve lady. So Rh +ve man should try to avoid marrying Rh-ve lady.
Newborn with erythroblastosis fetalis may need exchange transfusion.
Complete blood count, bilirubin levels are done. High levels of bilirubin may lead to kernicterus. Kernicterus means deposition of bilirubin in basal ganglia region & can cause severe brain damage (bilirubin encephalopathy). In kernicterus, baby will be lethargic,slowly responding when breast-feeding is tried. Bulging fontanelles may be seen
In 1st pregnancy problem is less severe but in subsequent pregnancies problem becomes more severe. Hemolytic disease of the newborn can be treated before birth by intrauterine transfusion.Incompatibilities of ABO blood types do not cause erythroblastosis fetalis.
Erythroblastosis fetalis can be prevented by giving the mother Rh0(D) immune globulin at 28 wk gestation and within 72 h of pregnancy termination. Due to preventive treatments given to the mother, erythroblastosis fetalis is less common nowadays Direct antiglobulin test (DAT, Direct Coomb's test ) is used to diagnose HDN.

Rhesus factor

Rh incompatibility

There are mainly four types of major blood groups in humans - A, B, AB and O. The Rhesus factor is a substance in blood by which human blood may be divided by its presence into (Rh +ve) or (Rh -ve) groups. The final identification of a blood group is thus O +ve, B -ve etc.

There is some misconception that the same blood group in both partners may be detrimental. This is not true. The actual problem may occur when the mother is Rh -ve and the husband is Rh +ve irrespectiveoftheirabogrouping

The baby of such a union could be Rh -ve or Rh +ve. For an Rh -ve baby there will be no problems and no precautions need to be taken. For an Rh +ve baby on the other hand complications of varying severity may take place.

Rhin compatability reasons

Mixing of some blood of the baby and mother occurs through every pregnancy but more so at the time of delivery. The mixing of Rh +ve blood (from the baby) in a Rh -ve mother causes the mother to build up some negative factors (antibodies) in her blood over time against the Rh +ve blood cells. These negative factors may then cross over to the baby through the placenta (afterbirth) and destroy the blood cells of the baby. the first pregnancy is spared, as a few months are needed for the negative factors to be built in the mother's body. In the subsequent pregnancies Rh +ve babies are likely to be affected by the antibodies from the mother.

Symptoms of rhesus incompatability

Tests may be done to estimate the amount of-ve factors in the mothers blood. (Indirect Coombs test). This gives us an idea of the chances the baby may be affected. If the chances of the baby being affected are high - serial tests of amniotic fluid or blood directly from the baby in the womb are done. If the condition is mild, early delivery and treatment of the baby is done after birth. If severe, blood transfusions for the baby need to be carried out in the womb. These methods are done in selected places by specialists and carry a high rate of complication.

Precautions

Injections are given both during pregnancy and soon after delivery to prevent an Rh -ve mother carrying an Rh +ve baby from developing the negative factors. The same injection needs to be given after a miscarriage to neutralize the mixing of blood which occurs in those cases.

General treatment

Treatment as explained above essentially depends on the severity of the condition. For severely affected babies, the risk of death is high. Precautions include early identification of the high-risk pregnancies by checking blood groups with Rh factor for all pregnant women.

Someone's experience
I am not a doctor but I can answer your question as I am RH-ve. My mother is rh-ve and my father is rh+ve. In my parents case, luckily my blood group was rh-ve.
If a girl has RH-ve & boy has RH+ve Blood Group factor (irrespective of A, B, AB, O), then there is about 50% chance that the child will be rh+ve. I such case, complication may occur. Dring pregnancy if child's blood and mother's blood mixes, mother's immune system starts to develop antibodies against RH factor. This may result in destruction in RBC as mentioned by dr.sachin.
But even in that case, it is possible to prevent such complications and the pregnancy is possible. This is because of the developments in the field of Science.